Behaviour and Discipline.
We are committed to creating and maintaining a safe, welcoming, happy and well ordered environment in which everyone can learn effectively and reach the highest possible standards of which they are capable. We expect everyone at Berkeley to:. We have agreed school rules which the children were involved in writing.
Each year classes agree with their teacher the key rules for their classroom. These are displayed within the classroom.
- Introduzione alla conoscenza vedica (Italian Edition).
- Balliol Day Nursery: Achieving Positive Behaviour.
- Dante: Poet, Author, And Proud Florentine (Makers of the Middle Ages and Renaissance).
- In a life threatening emergency dial Triple Zero (000).
- Teenagers: 20 tips for good behaviour | Raising Children Network.
- An Ideal Husband (Annotated).
We believe that a whole school approach to discipline is the only successful means of achieving a good behaviour code in our school. It should be noted that positive reinforcement refers to not only those stimuli that increase the likelihood of a desirable behavior but that cause an increase in ANY behavior Smith, For example, a student calls out during class to get attention. When the teacher responds, i.
Without meaning to, by paying attention, the teacher has made it more likely that the behavior will recur. It can therefore be seen how, although simple in concept, positive reinforcement must be used carefully and strategically. Positive reinforcement is occasionally misunderstood by teachers — for example, those teachers who were trained using different techniques Rumfola, However, more and more teachers are understanding this evolving and effective form of teaching and classroom management Rumfola, The reason positive reinforcement is important in the classroom is that it can be used to effectively change student behavior Smith, Using positive reinforcement is also important because it is a universal principle that actually occurs quite naturally in each and every classroom Maag, As well as offering the opportunity to increase the display of appropriate behaviors, planning the occurrence of positive reinforcement also means that educators can avoid inadvertently and haphazardly promoting inappropriate behaviors Maag, It can be quite difficult to avoid reinforcing misbehavior simply by paying attention to it.
It is important to use positive reinforcement in the classroom because a student who experiences positive reinforcement often shows a greater willingness to demonstrate positive behavior Rumfola, These are five simple examples of positive reinforcement in the classroom.
Keep reading to learn more about how it can be used effectively! The study included teachers from U. The study by Little and Akin-Little looks at positive reinforcement as an evidence-based classroom management procedure. It should be noted that, in this study, teachers also reported responding to breaches of rules with a large amount of attention e. The first four weeks of the study looked at test results when there was no use of positive reinforcement in the form of rewards Pintel, These results were then compared to grades for the four weeks in which students received rewards every time the student earned a score of 92 or above.
One functional analysis of a classroom found that destructive behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement, whilst positive behavior was continued through the use of positive reinforcement Rumfola, A study conducted by Kennedy reported that students with emotional and behavioral difficulties increased their compliance when they were given positive praise for their behavior Rumfola, The benefits of using positive reinforcement are academic, behavioral, social, and emotional Rumfola, Advantages of using positive reinforcement are, as described in Rumfola :.
In fact, behavior management techniques espousing the principles of positive reinforcement have actually been criticized and rejected by many teachers as well as the general public Maag, The book resonated with educators and the wider society.
What is Positive Reinforcement in Teaching and Education?
Axelrod had a different view. According to Axelrod, techniques that have been developed from positive reinforcement are not popular or accepted by professionals because they require time, provide little reimbursement to educators, they are not consistent with popular developmental psychology theories, are a threat to special interest groups, are somehow not acceptable socially, and are demeaning to humans Maag, According to Maag , positive reinforcement is commonly ignored and misunderstood. Mistakenly, some have believed that positive reinforcement is externally applied and thus individuals behave in a certain way not because they are internally motivated to do so Maag, Punishment had also been perceived as an effective way of controlling members of society.
Furthermore, despite empirical support for positive reinforcement, it is still common for techniques based on positive reinforcement not to be used correctly. It can be easy to ignore students who are behaving well, which is a disadvantage of positive reinforcement. In other words, a disadvantage of positive reinforcement is that the teacher cannot control what is naturally reinforcing for a student Maag, It is also very easy for a teacher to inadvertently positively reinforce inappropriate behavior simply by reacting to the student, and therefore paying attention to the student — increasing the likelihood of the behavior recurring Maag, Some teachers feel uncomfortable using reinforcement because they believe that this will mean that students lose sight of the intrinsic motivation to engage in an activity Parsonson, However, this is not actually a negative effect of positive reinforcement… children learn the intrinsic value of activities through effective teaching of skills that allow them to access and enjoy the activity!
Parsonson, Part of the process is for teachers to initially use exposure to extrinsic rewards for developing and displaying relevant skills Parsonson, The following discussion arises from the work of Alfie Kohn who wrote a somewhat controversial piece about the use of praise a form of social reinforcement It raises some interesting points to consider, though certainly approach the arguments with a grain of salt! The use of praise may, in fact, have negative consequences.
Achieving positive behaviour policy
Firstly, he argues that the use of praise may result in children being tentative in their responses because they have come to rely on praise as reassurance — i. Praise may also reflect an outcome that benefits the adults — e. Thus, using praise may be a way for us to get children to act in a way that is in accordance with our wishes. The use of praise is a value judgment, and by us providing praise to children, we take from them the opportunity to learn how it feels to successfully achieve something.
Constant praise may lead to a child depending on feedback to persist with a task. In other words, it has been found that the more a person is rewarded for doing something, the more they will lose interest in whatever it was that they had to do to get the reinforcement in the first place.
Promoting Good Behaviour
Kohn also describes a research study which found that children who were frequently praised for being generous actually ended up showing less generosity — in other words, the actions lost their value as something worthwhile in their own right. Rather, the actions are the means to elicit the positive reaction by an adult. It has been found that children who are praised may then struggle to achieve — the praise can create pressure to perform.
It may decrease interest in an activity — i. Kohn gives us an example of where praise may inadvertently discourage acts of beneficence — e. The child may have done so to elicit a positive reaction by an adult, or perhaps so the other child has enough to eat. The praise that is given does not regard these different motives, and may even lessen the chance of the more desirable motive — in future, the child may simply fish for more praise.
So, this somewhat lengthy discussion opens the door for considering the potential pitfalls of the use of positive reinforcement and particularly praise. Firstly, in order to look at the effect of positive reinforcement on learning, a definition of learning. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior, mental representations, or associations as a result of experience Pintel, So, positive reinforcement creates change as a result of experiencing the rewarding consequences of demonstrating a specific behavior.
An example of positive reinforcement shaping learning is that of a child misbehaving in a store. When the child misbehaves, the parent reacts — they may pay attention to the child, or even try to distract them by purchasing a toy Cherry, Cherry, How would a parent, on the other hand, use a positive parenting approach to teach the child how to behave appropriately? It is always important to consider the type of reinforcer used — depending on the individual and the situation.
At Ballykeel Primary School we aim to create a caring, secure environment where all our pupils feel happy and valued. By promoting self-esteem, responsibility and consideration for others we will encourage our pupils to achieve their potential in all areas of their development. Central to achieving our goals will be the co-operation and partnership between members of the whole school community.
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