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Forrester JW a System dynamics and the lessons of 35 Years. Kluwer, Boston Google Scholar. Forrester JW b System dynamics as an organizing framework for pre-college education. Forrester JW System dynamics and K teachers. Gharajedaghi J Systems thinking. Jackson MC Systems methodology for the management Sciences. Jackson MC Systems approaches to management. Kauffman SA The origins of order. Self-organization and selection in evolution. Klir GJ An approach to general systems theory. Nostrand, New York Google Scholar. Lane DC a Modeling as learning: A consultancy methodology for enhancing learning in management in management teams.
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Senge PM The fifth discipline. A truly general description must be based upon stronger theoretical considerations and be in some sense proven to predict and cover all special cases. Knowledge described in the SEBoK will usually be informally generalized knowledge, with any specific knowledge being identified as such and related to the general as appropriate. The current SEBoK part 2 does not include such a theory. It provides generalized descriptions of foundational knowledge which has a pragmatic value to help describe and improve the current and future practice of systems engineering.
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We would expect any emerging general theory of systems engineering to draw from and expand these foundations. Systems praxis requires many communities to work together. To work together we must first communicate; and to communicate, we must first connect.
This Systems Praxis Framework is included here because it represents current thinking on the foundations and common language of systems engineering, making the concepts and principles of systems thinking and practice accessible to anyone applying a systems approach to engineered system engineered system problems. This framework and thinking have been used to help organize the guide to systems knowledge in the SEBoK.
Systems Thinking is the core integrative element of the framework.
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It binds the foundations, theories and representations of systems science together with the hard, soft and pragmatic approaches of systems practice. In systems praxis, as in any practical discipline underpinned by science, there is constant interplay between theories and practice, with theory informing practice and outcomes from practice informing theory. Systems thinking is the ongoing activity of assessing and appreciating the system context system context , and guiding appropriate adaptation, throughout the praxis cycle. Systems Approaches to Practice aim to act on real world experiences to produce desired outcomes without adverse, unintended consequences; ergo, practice needs to draw on the wide range of knowledge appropriate to the system-of-interest system-of-interest and its wider context.
Traditional systems approaches are often described to be either hard or soft:. Pragmatic pluralist or critical approaches judiciously select an appropriate set of tools and patterns that will give sufficient and appropriate insights to manage the issue at hand, by applying multiple methodologies drawn from different foundations as appropriate to the situation.
Systems may be viewed as networks networks , societies of agents, organisms, ecosystems, rhizomes, discourses, machines, etc. Successful integration integration with this wider ecosystem is the key to success with real world systems. It is both enhanced by, and used in, humanistic disciplines, such as psychology, culture, and rhetoric, and pragmatic disciplines, such as accounting, design, and law. Systems practice depends on measured data and specified metrics metrics relevant to the problem situation and domain, the solicitation of local values and knowledge, and the pragmatic integration of experience, legacy practices, and discipline knowledge.
The possibility that this new cybernetics could also account for social forms of organization, remained an object of debate among theoreticians on self-organization in the s. In political science, Project Cybersyn attempted to introduce a cybernetically controlled economy during the early s. In the s, unlike its predecessor, the new cybernetics concerns itself with the interaction of autonomous political actors and subgroups, and the practical and reflexive consciousness of the subjects who produce and reproduce the structure of a political community.
A dominant consideration is that of recursiveness, or self-reference of political action both with regards to the expression of political consciousness and with the ways in which systems build upon themselves.http://badgepirates.burnsforce.com/3651.php
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Geyer and van der Zouwen, in , discussed a number of characteristics of the emerging "new cybernetics. This provides an epistemological foundation of science, by viewing it as observer-dependent. Another characteristic of the new cybernetics is its contribution towards bridging the "micro-macro gap. Geyer and van der Zouwen also noted that a transition from classical cybernetics to the new cybernetics involves a transition from classical problems to new problems.
These shifts in thinking involve, among others, a change from emphasis on the system being steered to the system doing the steering, and the factor which guides the steering decisions. And a new emphasis on communication between several systems which are trying to steer each other. Recent endeavors into the true focus of cybernetics, systems of control and emergent behavior, by such related fields as Game Theory the analysis of group interaction , systems of feedback in evolution, and Metamaterials the study of materials with properties beyond the Newtonian properties of their constituent atoms , have led to a revived interest in this increasingly relevant field.
Cybernetics is an earlier but still-used generic term for many subject matters. These subjects also extend into many others areas of science, but are united in their study of control of systems.
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Pure cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept, attempting to discover the basic principles underlying such things as. Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic systems present in biological organisms, primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their environment, and how information in the form of genes is passed from generation to generation.
Note: this does not refer to the concept of Racial Memory but to the concept of cumulative adaptation to a particular niche, such as the case of the pepper moth having genes for both light and dark environments.
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